Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a 10-inch springform pan.
Beat 1/2 cup butter, 1 cup white sugar, and vanilla extract in a large bowl using an electric mixer until creamy and smooth. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating in the first egg thoroughly before adding the second. Whisk 2 cups flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt together in a separate bowl; beat flour mixture into creamed butter mixture in several increments, alternating with sour cream, to make a batter.
Spread half the batter in the prepared pan. Combine cranberries with 1/4 cup white sugar in a bowl and spread the cranberries over batter; top with remaining batter. Stir brown sugar, 2 tablespoons flour, almonds, 1 tablespoon butter, and cinnamon together in a bowl until the topping looks like crumbs. Sprinkle topping evenly over cake.
Bake in the preheated oven until the cake is lightly browned and a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean or with moist crumbs, 50 to 55 minutes.
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