Prepare pastry cream: whisk sugar and cornstarch together in a medium saucepan. Gradually whisk in milk and egg yolks until combined. Turn to medium heat and cook, stirring constantly, until mixture thickens, 5 to 7 minutes.
Remove from heat and whisk in cold butter and vanilla until smooth. Strain through a fine mesh sieve into a large bowl. Place a piece of plastic wrap directly on top of custard and refrigerate until cold, about 3 hours or up to 24 hours.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Coat two 8-inch round cake pans with baking spray and line the bottom of each pan with parchment paper.
Bring a medium saucepan filled with 1 inch of water to a simmer over medium heat.
Combine eggs, egg yolks, and sugar in the bowl of a stand mixer. Set the mixing bowl over the pot of simmering water. Cook, whisking constantly, until a thermometer reaches 110 degrees F (43 degrees C), 5 to 6 minutes.
Return bowl to the stand mixer. Beat with a whisk attachment on high speed until mixture is pale yellow and has tripled in volume, about 3 minutes. Fold in flour until just combined. Fold in melted butter and vanilla until combined. Divide batter evenly between the prepared pans.
Bake in the preheated oven until golden brown and a wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean, 20 to 22 minutes. Let cool in pan 10 minutes. Invert onto a wire rack and let cool completely, about 1 hour. Use a long, serrated knife to split each cake layer in half horizontally. Set cake aside until pastry cream is ready to use.
Assemble cake: spread the cut side of each cake layer with warm raspberry jam. Place one cake layer, jam-side up, on a cake plate. Spread 1/2 cup pastry cream over cake. Repeat process with two more cake layers, ending with remaining cake layer on top, jam-side down. Place a 4-inch wooden skewer through the middle of the caketo hold layers in place. Reserve remaining remaining pastry cream for another use.
Beat heavy cream and 1/4 cup powdered sugar at medium-high speed with an electric mixer in a large bowl until stiff peaks form. Spread a thin layer of whipped cream around side of cake. Mound remaining whipped cream on top of cake, spreading to create a smooth dome.
Knead together marzipan and gel food dye until color is evenly distributed. Roll out marzipan in between 2 sheets of parchment paper, to a 15-inch circle; gently remove top piece of parchment paper. Invert marzipan and drape over cake; gently remove remaining parchment paper. Gently press marzipan down over cake, starting at the top of cake and working your way down to create a smooth dome. Cut away any excess and tuck ends of marzipan under cake.
Dust top of cake with sifted powdered sugar. Garnish with fresh raspberries.
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